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  1. Epigenetic regulation by histone deacetylases (HDACs) in Schwann cells (SCs) after injury facilitates them to undergo de- and redifferentiation processes necessary to support various stages of nerve repair. Al...

    Authors: Anjali Yadav, Tzu-Chieh Huang, Szu-Han Chen, Thamil Selvee Ramasamy, Yuan-Yu Hsueh, Shau-Ping Lin, Fu-I Lu, Ya-Hsin Liu and Chia-Ching Wu

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:238

    Content type: Research

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  2. Type I interferons (IFN-I) are key responders to central nervous system infection and injury and are also increased in common neurodegenerative diseases. Their effects are primarily mediated via transcriptiona...

    Authors: Barney Viengkhou, Melanie Y. White, Stuart J. Cordwell, Iain L. Campbell and Markus J. Hofer

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:237

    Content type: Research

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  3. Decreased cerebral blood flow and systemic inflammation during heart failure (HF) increase the risk for vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) and Alzheimer disease-related dementia...

    Authors: Christina Hoyer-Kimura, John P. Konhilas, Heidi M. Mansour, Robin Polt, Kristian P. Doyle, Dean Billheimer and Meredith Hay

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:236

    Content type: Research

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  4. The ability to track individual immune cells within the central nervous system has revolutionized our understanding of the roles that microglia and monocytes play in synaptic maintenance, plasticity, and neuro...

    Authors: Eric B. Miller, Sarah J. Karlen, Kaitryn E. Ronning and Marie E. Burns

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:235

    Content type: Short report

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  5. Plenty of macrophages are recruited to the injured nerve to play key roles in the immunoreaction and engulf the debris of degenerated axons and myelin during Wallerian degeneration, thus creating a conducive m...

    Authors: Jiawei Xu, Jinkun Wen, Lanya Fu, Liqiang Liao, Ying Zou, Jiaqi Zhang, Junyao Deng, Haowen Zhang, Jingmin Liu, Xianghai Wang, Daming Zuo and Jiasong Guo

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:234

    Content type: Research

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  6. Changes in dopaminergic neural function can be induced by an acute inflammatory state that, by altering the integrity of the neurovasculature, induces neuronal stress, cell death and causes functional deficits...

    Authors: Serena Becchi, Alberto Buson and Bernard W. Balleine

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:233

    Content type: Research

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  7. Brain-resident microglia have a distinct origin compared to macrophages in other organs. Under physiological conditions, microglia are maintained by self-renewal from the local pool, independent of hematopoiet...

    Authors: Xi Feng, Elma S. Frias, Maria S. Paladini, David Chen, Zoe Boosalis, McKenna Becker, Sonali Gupta, Sharon Liu, Nalin Gupta and Susanna Rosi

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:232

    Content type: Research

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  8. It is well accepted that environmental stressors experienced over a one’s life, from microbial infections to chemical toxicants to even psychological stressors, ultimately shape central nervous system (CNS) fu...

    Authors: Shawn Hayley and Hongyu Sun

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:231

    Content type: Review

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  9. Astrocytic glycogen works as an essential energy reserve for surrounding neurons and is reported to accumulate excessively during cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Our previous study found that accum...

    Authors: Haiyun Guo, Ze Fan, Shiquan Wang, Lina Ma, Jin Wang, Doutong Yu, Zhen Zhang, Lin Wu, Zhengwu Peng, Wenming Liu, Wugang Hou and Yanhui Cai

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:230

    Content type: Research

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  10. Neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE) is a severe complication, which involves pathological damage to the brain and cognitive function. However, its exact mechanism of action still remains uncl...

    Authors: Li Lu, Hailin Wang, Xuan Liu, Liping Tan, Xiaoyue Qiao, Jiali Ni, Yang Sun, Jun Liang, Yayi Hou and Huan Dou

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:229

    Content type: Research

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  11. Immune involvement is well-described in Parkinson’s disease (PD), including an adaptive T lymphocyte response. Given the increasing prevalence of Parkinson’s disease in older age, age-related dysregulation of ...

    Authors: Antonina Kouli, Melanie Jensen, Vanesa Papastavrou, Kirsten M. Scott, Claire Kolenda, Craig Parker, Imtiaz H. Solim, Marta Camacho, Carmen Martin-Ruiz and Caroline H. Williams-Gray

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:228

    Content type: Research

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  12. Macrophages in the peripheral nervous system are key players in the repair of nerve tissue and the development of neuropathic pain due to peripheral nerve injury. However, there is a lack of information on the...

    Authors: Haruki Iwai, Koji Ataka, Hajime Suzuki, Ashis Dhar, Eriko Kuramoto, Atsushi Yamanaka and Tetsuya Goto

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:227

    Content type: Research

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  13. Hypoxic–ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a severe anoxic brain injury that leads to premature mortality or long-term disabilities in infants. Neuroinflammation is a vital contributor to the pathogenic cascade ...

    Authors: Shucai Xie, Xili Jiang, Desislava Met Doycheva, Hui Shi, Peng Jin, Ling Gao, Rui Liu, Jie Xiao, Xiao Hu, Jiping Tang, Lina Zhang and John H. Zhang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:226

    Content type: Research

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  14. Inflammation may contribute to multiple brain pathologies. One cause of inflammation is lipopolysaccharide/endotoxin (LPS), the levels of which are elevated in blood and/or brain during bacterial infections, g...

    Authors: Stefan Milde, Francesca W. van Tartwijk, Anna Vilalta, Tamara C. Hornik, Jacob M. Dundee, Mar Puigdellívol and Guy C. Brown

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:225

    Content type: Short report

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  15. The primary progressive aphasias (PPA) represent a group of usually sporadic neurodegenerative disorders with three main variants: the nonfluent or agrammatic variant (nfvPPA), the semantic variant (svPPA), an...

    Authors: Aitana Sogorb-Esteve, Imogen J. Swift, Ione O. C. Woollacott, Jason D. Warren, Henrik Zetterberg and Jonathan D. Rohrer

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:224

    Content type: Research

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  16. The complex pathophysiology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) hampers the development of effective treatments. Attempts to prevent neurodegeneration in AD have failed so far, highlighting the need for further clarif...

    Authors: Gonzalo Ruiz-Pérez, Samuel Ruiz de Martín Esteban, Sharai Marqués, Noelia Aparicio, M. Teresa Grande, Irene Benito-Cuesta, Ana M. Martínez-Relimpio, M. Andrea Arnanz, Rosa M. Tolón, María Posada-Ayala, Benjamin F. Cravatt, José A. Esteban, Julián Romero and Rocío Palenzuela

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:223

    Content type: Research

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  17. During inflammatory demyelination, TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) mediates detrimental proinflammatory effects of soluble TNF (solTNF), whereas TNFR2 mediates beneficial effects of transmembrane TNF (tmTNF) through ol...

    Authors: Irini Papazian, Eleni Tsoukala, Athena Boutou, Maria Karamita, Konstantinos Kambas, Lida Iliopoulou, Roman Fischer, Roland E. Kontermann, Maria C. Denis, George Kollias, Hans Lassmann and Lesley Probert

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:222

    Content type: Research

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  18. Neuroinflammation following traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been shown to be associated with secondary injury development; however, how systemic inflammatory mediators affect this is not fully understood. The...

    Authors: Philipp Lassarén, Caroline Lindblad, Arvid Frostell, Keri L. H. Carpenter, Mathew R. Guilfoyle, Peter J. A. Hutchinson, Adel Helmy and Eric Peter Thelin

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:221

    Content type: Research

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  19. Homozygotic mutations in the GBA gene cause Gaucher’s disease; moreover, both patients and heterozygotic carriers have been associated with 20- to 30-fold increased risk of developing Parkinson’s disease. In h...

    Authors: Electra Brunialti, Alessandro Villa, Marianna Mekhaeil, Federica Mornata, Elisabetta Vegeto, Adriana Maggi, Donato A. Di Monte and Paolo Ciana

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:220

    Content type: Research

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  20. Despite widespread acceptance that neuroinflammation contributes to age-related cognitive decline, studies comparing protein expression of cytokines in the young versus old brains are surprisingly limited in t...

    Authors: Latarsha Porcher, Sophie Bruckmeier, Steven D. Burbano, Julie E. Finnell, Nicole Gorny, Jennifer Klett, Susan K. Wood and Michy P. Kelly

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:219

    Content type: Research

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  21. The dentate gyrus exhibits life-long neurogenesis of granule-cell neurons, supporting hippocampal dependent learning and memory. Both temporal lobe epilepsy patients and animal models frequently have hippocamp...

    Authors: Malik Zaben, Niels Haan, Feras Sharouf, Aminul Ahmed, Lars E. Sundstrom and William P. Gray

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:218

    Content type: Research

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  22. The identification of endogenous signals that lead to microglial activation is a key step in understanding neuroinflammatory cascades. As ATP release accompanies mechanical strain to neural tissue, and as the ...

    Authors: Keith E. Campagno, Wennan Lu, Assraa Hassan Jassim, Farraj Albalawi, Aurora Cenaj, Huen-Yee Tso, Sophia P. Clark, Puttipong Sripinun, Néstor Más Gómez and Claire H. Mitchell

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:217

    Content type: Research

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  23. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) is a hydrophilic bile acid derivative, which has been demonstrated to have neuroprotective effects in different neurological disease models. However, the effect and underlying...

    Authors: Yonghui Hou, Jiyao Luan, Taida Huang, Tiancheng Deng, Xing Li, Zhifeng Xiao, Jiheng Zhan, Dan Luo, Yu Hou, Liangliang Xu and Dingkun Lin

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:216

    Content type: Research

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  24. Microglia cells represent the resident innate immune cells of the retina and are important for retinal development and tissue homeostasis. However, dysfunctional microglia can have a negative impact on the str...

    Authors: Peipei Zhang, Anja Schlecht, Julian Wolf, Stefaniya Boneva, Yannik Laich, Jana Koch, Franziska Ludwig, Myriam Boeck, Adrian Thien, Carmen Härdtner, Katrin Kierdorf, Hansjürgen Agostini, Günther Schlunck, Marco Prinz, Ingo Hilgendorf, Peter Wieghofer…

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:215

    Content type: Research

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  25. APOE4 is the strongest genetic risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and obesity is a strong environmental risk factor for AD. These factors result in multiple central nervous system (CNS) disturbances and si...

    Authors: Nahdia S. Jones, Katarina Q. Watson and G. William Rebeck

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:214

    Content type: Research

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  26. Inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS) is observed in many neurological disorders. Nitric oxide-soluble guanylate cyclase-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (NO–sGC–cGMP) signaling plays an essential rol...

    Authors: Susana S. Correia, Guang Liu, Sarah Jacobson, Sylvie G. Bernier, Jenny V. Tobin, Chad D. Schwartzkopf, Emily Atwater, Elisabeth Lonie, Sam Rivers, Andrew Carvalho, Peter Germano, Kim Tang, Rajesh R. Iyengar, Mark G. Currie, John R. Hadcock, Christopher J. Winrow…

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:213

    Content type: Research

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  27. Binge ethanol exposure during adolescence reduces hippocampal neurogenesis, a reduction which persists throughout adulthood despite abstinence. This loss of neurogenesis, indicated by reduced doublecortin+ imm...

    Authors: Victoria Macht, Ryan Vetreno, Natalie Elchert and Fulton Crews

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:212

    Content type: Research

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  28. Central post-stroke pain (CPSP) is a chronic and intolerable neuropathic pain syndrome following a cerebral vascular insult, which negatively impacts the quality of life of stroke survivors but currently lacks...

    Authors: Tongtong Liu, Ting Li, Xuhui Chen, Zuofan Li, Miaomiao Feng, Wenlong Yao, Li Wan, Chuanhan Zhang and Yue Zhang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:211

    Content type: Research

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  29. Neuroinflammation and oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of early brain injury (EBI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). This study is the first to show that activation of autophagy ...

    Authors: Hanhai Zeng, Huaijun Chen, Min Li, Jianfeng Zhuang, Yucong Peng, Hang Zhou, Chaoran Xu, Qian Yu, Xiongjie Fu, Shenglong Cao, Jing Cai, Feng Yan and Gao Chen

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:210

    Content type: Research

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  30. Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) is an innate immune receptor that detects viral single-stranded RNA and triggers the production of proinflammatory cytokines and type 1 interferons in immune cells. TLR7 agonists al...

    Authors: Becky J. Proskocil, Karol Wai, Katherine M. Lebold, Mason A. Norgard, Katherine A. Michaelis, Ubaldo De La Torre, Madeline Cook, Daniel L. Marks, Allison D. Fryer, David B. Jacoby and Matthew G. Drake

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:209

    Content type: Research

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  31. Microglial-mediated neuroinflammation plays an important role in vascular dementia, and modulating neuroinflammation has emerged as a promising treatment target. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) shows ant...

    Authors: Yao Zhao, Jiawei Zhang, Yaling Zheng, Yaxuan Zhang, Xiao Jie Zhang, Hongmei Wang, Yu Du, Jian Guan, Xiuzhe Wang and Jianliang Fu

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:207

    Content type: Research

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  32. Glaucoma is an optic neuropathy characterized by loss of function and death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), leading to irreversible vision loss. Neuroinflammation is recognized as one of the causes of glauco...

    Authors: Francesca Lazzara, Rosario Amato, Chiara Bianca Maria Platania, Federica Conti, Tsung-Han Chou, Vittorio Porciatti, Filippo Drago and Claudio Bucolo

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:206

    Content type: Research

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  33. Two activation states of reactive astrocytes termed A1 and A2 subtypes emerge at the lesion sites following spinal cord injury (SCI). A1 astrocytes are known to be neurotoxic that participate in neuropathogene...

    Authors: Lilan Li, Yu Li, Bingqiang He, Hui Li, Huiyuan Ji, Yingjie Wang, Zhenjie Zhu, Yuming Hu, Yue Zhou, Ting Yang, Chunshuai Sun, Ying Yuan and Yongjun Wang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:205

    Content type: Research

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  34. Perioperative neurocognitive disorder (PND) is a long-term postoperative complication in elderly surgical patients. The underlying mechanism of PND is unclear, and no effective therapies are currently availabl...

    Authors: Wenqiang Zuo, Jianshuai Zhao, Jinming Zhang, Zongping Fang, Jiao Deng, Ze Fan, Yaru Guo, Jing Han, Wugang Hou, Hailong Dong, Feifei Xu and Lize Xiong

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:204

    Content type: Research

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  35. We have recently showed that atorvastatin (ATO) combined with low dose of dexamethasone (DEX) was more efficacious in treating patients with chronic subdural haematoma (CSDH) than ATO monotherapy. This study w...

    Authors: Zhitao Gong, Daqiang Zhan, Meng Nie, Xiaochun Li, Chuang Gao, Xuanhui Liu, Tangtang Xiang, Jiangyuan Yuan, Weiwei Jiang, Jinhao Huang, Wei Quan, Dong Wang, Ye Tian, Hengjie Yuan, Jianning Zhang and Rongcai Jiang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:203

    Content type: Research

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  36. Increasing evidence indicates that dysregulated TNF-α and oxidative stress (OxS) contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Additionally, previous evidence has demonstrated sex differences in many asp...

    Authors: Minghuan Zhu, Zhenjing Liu, Yanhong Guo, Mst. Sadia Sultana, Kang Wu, Xiaoe Lang, Qinyu Lv, Xiao Huang, Zhenghui Yi and Zezhi Li

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:202

    Content type: Research

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  37. Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is mainly an anti-aquaporin 4 (anti-AQP4) autoantibodies-mediated idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Systemic and local ...

    Authors: Xue Ma, Chuan Qin, Man Chen, Hai-Han Yu, Yun-Hui Chu, Ting-Jun Chen, Dale B. Bosco, Long-Jun Wu, Bi-Tao Bu, Wei Wang and Dai-Shi Tian

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:201

    Content type: Research

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  38. Treatment-resistant depression (TRD) and pain frequently coexist clinically. Ketamine has analgesic and antidepressant effects, but few studies have evaluated individual differences in antidepressant outcomes ...

    Authors: Yanling Zhou, Chengyu Wang, Xiaofeng Lan, Hanqiu Li, Ziyuan Chao and Yuping Ning

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:200

    Content type: Research

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  39. Patients with chronic inflammatory disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease frequently experience neurological complications including epilepsy, depression, attention deficit disorders, migraines, and deme...

    Authors: Sarah E. Barnes, Kristy A. Zera, Geoffrey T. Ivison, Marion S. Buckwalter and Edgar G. Engleman

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:199

    Content type: Research

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  40. The cortico-cerebellar-thalamic-cortical circuit has been implicated in the emergence of psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia (SZ). The kynurenine pathway (KP) has been linked to alterations in glutamatergic an...

    Authors: Amira Ben Afia, Èlia Vila, Karina S. MacDowell, Aida Ormazabal, Juan C. Leza, Josep M. Haro, Rafael Artuch, Belén Ramos and Borja Garcia-Bueno

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:198

    Content type: Research

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  41. Microglia-mediated neuroinflammation plays an important role in Parkinson’s disease (PD), and it exerts proinflammatory or anti-inflammatory effects depending on the M1/M2 polarization phenotype. Hence, promot...

    Authors: Xiaodong Yang, Yi Zhang, Yimeng Chen, Xiaoqin He, Yiwei Qian, Shaoqing Xu, Chao Gao, Chengjun Mo, Shengdi Chen and Qin Xiao

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:197

    Content type: Research

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  42. Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a severe traumatic disease which causes high disability and mortality rates. The molecular pathological features after spinal cord injury mainly involve the inflammatory response, m...

    Authors: Yuluo Rong, Chengyue Ji, Zhuanghui Wang, Xuhui Ge, Jiaxing Wang, Wu Ye, Pengyu Tang, Dongdong Jiang, Jin Fan, Guoyong Yin, Wei Liu and Weihua Cai

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:196

    Content type: Research

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  43. Timely endovascular thrombectomy (EVT) significantly improves outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) with large vessel occlusion type. However, whether certain central nervous system-specific pl...

    Authors: Chih-Hao Chen, Hai-Jui Chu, Yi-Ting Hwang, Yen-Heng Lin, Chung-Wei Lee, Sung-Chun Tang and Jiann-Shing Jeng

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:195

    Content type: Research

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  44. Past experiments studying innate immunity in the central nervous system (CNS) utilized microglia obtained from neonatal mouse brain, which differ developmentally from adult microglia. These differences might i...

    Authors: James A. Carroll, Brent Race, Katie Williams, James F. Striebel and Bruce Chesebro

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:194

    Content type: Research

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  45. The neuroimmune system is required for normal neural processes, including modulation of cognition, emotion, and adaptive behaviors. Aberrant neuroimmune activation is associated with dysregulation of memory an...

    Authors: Caitlin K. Posillico, Rosa E. Garcia-Hernandez and Natalie C. Tronson

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:193

    Content type: Research

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  46. Interleukin-6 (IL6) produced in the context of exercise acts in the hypothalamus reducing obesity-associated inflammation and restoring the control of food intake and energy expenditure. In the hippocampus, so...

    Authors: Vanessa C. Bobbo, Daiane F. Engel, Carlos Poblete Jara, Natalia F. Mendes, Roberta Haddad-Tovolli, Thais P. Prado, Davi Sidarta-Oliveira, Joseane Morari, Licio A. Velloso and Eliana P. Araujo

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:192

    Content type: Research

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  47. Dynamically altered microglia play an important role in the progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Here, we found a close association of the metabolic reconfiguration of microglia with increased hippocampal ...

    Authors: Hongyoon Choi, Yoori Choi, Eun Ji Lee, Hyun Kim, Youngsun Lee, Seokjun Kwon, Do Won Hwang and Dong Soo Lee

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:190

    Content type: Research

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  48. Increased systemic and tissue levels of interleukin (IL)-1β are associated with greater risk of impaired neurodevelopment after birth. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that systemic IL-1 receptor antago...

    Authors: Sharmony B. Kelly, Vanesa Stojanovska, Valerie A. Zahra, Alison Moxham, Suzanne L. Miller, Timothy J. M. Moss, Stuart B. Hooper, Marcel F. Nold, Claudia A. Nold-Petry, Justin M. Dean, Laura Bennet, Graeme R. Polglase, Alistair J. Gunn and Robert Galinsky

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:189

    Content type: Research

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