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Table 1 GABA (μmol/L), serotonin (ng/mL), dopamine (ng/L), oxytocin (μLU/mL), and IFI16 (ng/mL) levels of control and autistic groups

From: Association of social and cognitive impairment and biomarkers in autism spectrum disorders

Parameters Group n Mean ± SD P value a P value b
GABA (μmol/L) Control 30 0.16 ± 0.04   
  Patients with autism 30 0.27 ± 0.09   0.001
  Autism (mild to moderate in CARS) 21 0.24 ± 0.07 0.016 0.001
  Autism (severe in CARS) 9 0.32 ± 0.07 0.001
  Autism (mild to moderate in SRS) 12 0.24 ± 0.07 0.010 0.002
  Autism (severe in SRS) 15 0.31 ± 0.06 0.001
Serotonin (ng/mL) Control 30 154.83 ± 41.75   
  Patients with autism 48 29.40 ± 8.95   0.001
  Autism (mild to moderate in CARS) 22 28.23 ± 6.12 0.043 0.001
  Autism (severe in CARS) 25 33.18 ± 9.58   0.001
  Autism (mild to moderate in SRS) 15 22.04 ± 5.41 0.017 0.001
  Autism (severe in SRS) 21 27.92 ± 7.83   0.001
Dopamine (ng/L) Control 27 548.78 ± 54.12   
  Patients with autism 28 396.86 ± 60.97   0.001
  Autism (mild to moderate in CARS) 11 360.93 ± 54.78 0.019 0.001
  Autism (severe in CARS) 17 413.41 ± 54.05 0.001
  Autism (mild to moderate in SRS) 11 375.19 ± 40.10 0.019 0.001
  Autism (severe in SRS) 12 418.46 ± 41.76 0.001
Oxytocin (μLU/mL) Control 30 139.22 ± 36.62   
  Patients with autism 50 71.71 ± 18.09   0.001
  Autism (mild to moderate in CARS) 27 80.74 ± 18.78 0.001 0.001
  Autism (severe in CARS) 23 63.67 ± 14.72 0.001
  Autism (mild to moderate in SRS) 20 78.63 ± 17.16   0.001
  Autism (severe in SRS) 18 66.72 ± 17.92 0.001
IFI16 (ng/mL) Control 30 1.75 ± 0.42   
  Patients with autism 56 2.97 ± 0.84   0.001
  Autism (mild to moderate in CARS) 29 2.82 ± 0.85 0.048 0.001
  Autism (severe in CARS) 25 3.25 ± 0.64   0.001
  Autism (mild to moderate in SRS) 21 2.80 ± 0.78 0.028 0.001
  Autism (severe in SRS) 21 3.31 ± 0.64   0.001
  1. a P value between mild to moderate and severe in CARS and SRS.
  2. b P value between control and autistic groups.
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