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  1. Heat-shock protein B1 (HSPB1) is among the most well-known and versatile member of the evolutionarily conserved family of small heat-shock proteins. It has been implicated to serve a neuroprotective role again...

    Authors: Brigitta Dukay, Fruzsina R. Walter, Judit P. Vigh, Beáta Barabási, Petra Hajdu, Tamás Balassa, Ede Migh, András Kincses, Zsófia Hoyk, Titanilla Szögi, Emőke Borbély, Bálint Csoboz, Péter Horváth, Lívia Fülöp, Botond Penke, László Vígh…

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:22

    Content type: Research

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  2. Microglia react to danger signals by rapid and targeted extension of cellular processes towards the source of the signal. This positive chemotactic response is accompanied by a hyperpolarization of the microgl...

    Authors: Laura Laprell, Christian Schulze, Marie-Luise Brehme and Thomas G. Oertner

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:21

    Content type: Short report

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    The Correction to this article has been published in Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:33

  3. Recent work has established that Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients have an altered gut microbiome, along with signs of intestinal inflammation. This could help explain the high degree of gastric disturbances i...

    Authors: Zach Dwyer, Melany Chaiquin, Jeffrey Landrigan, Kiara Ayoub, Pragya Shail, Julianna Rocha, Christie L. Childers, Kenneth B. Storey, Dana J. Philpott, Hongyu Sun and Shawn Hayley

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:20

    Content type: Research

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  4. Genetic variants and mutations in triggering receptor expressed in myeloid cells (TREM2) are associated with premature and late onset Alzheimer’s disease (AD).

    Authors: Michael Fassler, Maya Saban Rappaport, Clara Benaim Cuño and Jacob George

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:19

    Content type: Research

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  5. Microglia are highly motile phagocytic cells in the healthy brain with surveillance and clearance functions. Although microglia have been shown to engulf cellular debris following brain insult, less is known a...

    Authors: Xiaoying Cai, Ying Li, Xiaoyang Zheng, Rong Hu, Yingyuan Li, Liangcan Xiao and Zhongxing Wang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:18

    Content type: Research

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  6. FMRP is a selective mRNA-binding protein that regulates protein synthesis at synapses, and its loss may lead to the impairment of trace fear memory. Previously, we found that FMRP levels in the hippocampus of ...

    Authors: Peng-Yin Nie, Lei Tong, Ming-Da Li, Chang-Hai Fu, Jun-Bo Peng and Li-Li Ji

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:17

    Content type: Research

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  7. Microglia are resident immunocompetent and phagocytic cells in the CNS. Pro-inflammatory microglia, stimulated by microbial signals such as bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), viral RNAs, or inflammatory cytok...

    Authors: Nicholas W. Mathy, Olivia Burleigh, Andrew Kochvar, Erin R. Whiteford, Matthew Behrens, Patrick Marta, Cong Tian, Ai-Yu Gong, Kristen M. Drescher, Peter S. Steyger, Xian-Ming Chen and Annemarie Shibata

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:16

    Content type: Research

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  8. The acute phase response (APR) to CNS insults contributes to the overall magnitude and nature of the systemic inflammatory response. Aspects of this response are thought to drive secondary inflammatory patholo...

    Authors: Abi G. Yates, Trisha Jogia, Ellen R. Gillespie, Yvonne Couch, Marc J. Ruitenberg and Daniel C. Anthony

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:15

    Content type: Research

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  9. P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) is an ATP-gated nonselective cationic channel playing important roles in a variety of physiological functions, including inflammation, and apoptotic or necrotic cell death. An extracellul...

    Authors: Duk-Shin Lee and Ji-Eun Kim

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:14

    Content type: Research

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  10. Perinatal inflammation is a key factor of brain vulnerability in neonates born preterm or with intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR), two leading conditions associated with brain injury and responsible for n...

    Authors: Manuela Zinni, Jérôme Mairesse, Julien Pansiot, Francesco Fazio, Luisa Iacovelli, Nico Antenucci, Rosamaria Orlando, Ferdinando Nicoletti, Daniel Vaiman and Olivier Baud

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:13

    Content type: Research

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  11. After spinal cord injury (SCI), glial scarring is mainly formed around the lesion and inhibits axon regeneration. Recently, we reported that anti-β1 integrin antibody (β1Ab) had a therapeutic effect on astrocy...

    Authors: Shingo Yoshizaki, Tetsuya Tamaru, Masamitsu Hara, Ken Kijima, Masatake Tanaka, Dai-jiro Konno, Yoshihiro Matsumoto, Yasuharu Nakashima and Seiji Okada

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:12

    Content type: Research

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  12. Usutu virus (USUV) is an emerging neurotropic arthropod-borne virus recently involved in massive die offs of wild birds predominantly reported in Europe. Although primarily asymptomatic or presenting mild clin...

    Authors: Marion Clé, Orianne Constant, Jonathan Barthelemy, Caroline Desmetz, Marie France Martin, Lina Lapeyre, Daniel Cadar, Giovanni Savini, Liana Teodori, Federica Monaco, Jonas Schmidt-Chanasit, Juan-Carlos Saiz, Gaëlle Gonzales, Sylvie Lecollinet, Cécile Beck, Fabien Gosselet…

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:11

    Content type: Research

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    The Correction to this article has been published in Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:59

  13. The role of microglia in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathogenesis is becoming increasingly important, as activation of these cell types likely contributes to both pathological and protective processes associated ...

    Authors: Song Cao, Daniel W. Fisher, Guadalupe Rodriguez, Tian Yu and Hongxin Dong

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:10

    Content type: Research

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  14. Both genetic factors and environmental hazards, including environmental noise stress, have been associated with gut microbiome that exacerbates Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology. However, the role and mechani...

    Authors: Huimin Chi, Wa Cao, Ming Zhang, Donghong Su, Honglian Yang, Zhe Li, Chao Li, Xiaojun She, Kun Wang, Xiujie Gao, Kefeng Ma, Pengfang Zheng, Xiaofang Li and Bo Cui

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:9

    Content type: Research

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  15. Neuroinflammation is associated with various chronic neurological diseases, including epilepsy; however, neuroimaging approaches for visualizing neuroinflammation have not been used in the clinical routine yet...

    Authors: Kuriko Kagitani-Shimono, Hiroki Kato, Ryoko Kuwayama, Koji Tominaga, Shin Nabatame, Haruhiko Kishima, Jun Hatazawa and Masako Taniike

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:8

    Content type: Research

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  16. Alteration of immune status in the central nervous system (CNS) has been implicated in the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the nature of overall changes in brain immunocyte lands...

    Authors: Shuoshuo Li, Yajin Liao, Yuan Dong, Xiaoheng Li, Jun Li, Yong Cheng, Jinbo Cheng and Zengqiang Yuan

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:7

    Content type: Research

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  17. Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury is a leading cause of acute mortality and chronic disability in newborns. Our previous studies demonstrated that HI insult significantly increased microRNA-210 (miR-...

    Authors: Qingyi Ma, Chiranjib Dasgupta, Guofang Shen, Yong Li and Lubo Zhang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:6

    Content type: Research

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  18. Central sensitization is an important pathophysiological mechanism of chronic migraine (CM). According to our previous studies, microglial activation and subsequent inflammation in the trigeminal nucleus cauda...

    Authors: Li Jiang, Yixin Zhang, Feng Jing, Ting Long, Guangcheng Qin, Dunke Zhang, Lixue Chen and Jiying Zhou

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:5

    Content type: Research

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  19. Cognitive decline occurs frequently in Parkinson’s disease (PD), which greatly decreases the quality of life of patients. However, the mechanisms remain to be investigated. Neuroinflammation mediated by overac...

    Authors: Dongdong Zhang, Sheng Li, Liyan Hou, Lu Jing, Zhengzheng Ruan, Bingjie Peng, Xiaomeng Zhang, Jau-Shyong Hong, Jie Zhao and Qingshan Wang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:4

    Content type: Research

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  20. Inflammatory response plays an important role in many processes related to acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Calprotectin (S100A8/S100A9), released by monocytes and neutrophils, is a key protein in the regulation o...

    Authors: Juan Marta-Enguita, Manuel Navarro-Oviedo, Idoia Rubio-Baines, Nuria Aymerich, Maria Herrera, Beatriz Zandio, Sergio Mayor, Jose-Antonio Rodriguez, Jose-Antonio Páramo, Estefania Toledo, Maite Mendioroz, Roberto Muñoz and Josune Orbe

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:3

    Content type: Research

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  21. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Microglial/macrophage activation and neuroinflammation are key cellular events following TBI, but the regulatory and functiona...

    Authors: Haijian Wu, Jingwei Zheng, Shenbin Xu, Yuanjian Fang, Yingxi Wu, Jianxiong Zeng, Anwen Shao, Ligen Shi, Jianan Lu, Shuhao Mei, Xiaoyu Wang, Xinying Guo, Yirong Wang, Zhen Zhao and Jianmin Zhang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:2

    Content type: Research

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  22. The NLRP3-mediated pyroptosis, which could be regulated by miRNA-27a, is a key player in the development of depression. Isoliquiritin is a phenolic flavonoid compound that has been demonstrated to suppress NLR...

    Authors: Yuanjie Li, Wen Song, Yue Tong, Xia Zhang, Jianjun Zhao, Xiaojuan Gao, Jingjiao Yong and Hanqing Wang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:1

    Content type: Research

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  23. Previous studies noted that intravitreal injection of S100B triggered a glaucoma-like degeneration of retina and optic nerve as well as microglia activation after 14 days. The precise role of microglia in our ...

    Authors: Pia Grotegut, Natarajan Perumal, Sandra Kuehn, Andreas Smit, H. Burkhard Dick, Franz H. Grus and Stephanie C. Joachim

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:375

    Content type: Research

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  24. In vivo assessment of neuroinflammation by 18-kDa translocator protein positron-emission-tomography (TSPO-PET) ligands receives growing interest in preclinical and clinical research of neurodegenerative disord...

    Authors: Gloria Biechele, Nicolai Franzmeier, Tanja Blume, Michael Ewers, Jose Medina Luque, Florian Eckenweber, Christian Sacher, Leonie Beyer, Francois Ruch-Rubinstein, Simon Lindner, Franz-Josef Gildehaus, Barbara von Ungern-Sternberg, Paul Cumming, Peter Bartenstein, Axel Rominger, Günter U. Höglinger…

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:374

    Content type: Research

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  25. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammation-mediated demyelinating disease of the central nervous system that eventually results in secondary axonal degeneration due to remyelination failure. Successful remyeli...

    Authors: Inge L. Werkman, Marissa L. Dubbelaar, Pieter van der Vlies, Jelkje J. de Boer-Bergsma, Bart J. L. Eggen and Wia Baron

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:373

    Content type: Research

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  26. Microglia are brain-resident myeloid cells involved in the innate immune response and a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. In macrophages, TonEBP is a transcriptional cofactor of NF-κB which stimulates the...

    Authors: Gyu Won Jeong, Hwan Hee Lee, Whaseon Lee-Kwon and Hyug Moo Kwon

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:372

    Content type: Research

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  27. Genetics have provided hints on potential molecular pathways involved in neurodegenerative diseases (NDD). However, the number of cases caused exclusively by genetic alterations is low, suggesting an important...

    Authors: Jorge Rubén Cabrera, Ignacio Rodríguez-Izquierdo, José Luis Jiménez and María Ángeles Muñoz-Fernández

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:371

    Content type: Research

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  28. Neuroinflammation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), a progressive neurodegenerative disease association with exposure to repetitive head impacts (RHI) received ...

    Authors: Jonathan D. Cherry, Gaoyuan Meng, Sarah Daley, Weiming Xia, Sarah Svirsky, Victor E. Alvarez, Raymond Nicks, Morgan Pothast, Hunter Kelley, Bertrand Huber, Yorghos Tripodis, Michael L. Alosco, Jesse Mez, Ann C. McKee and Thor D. Stein

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:370

    Content type: Research

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  29. Neuron-glial antigen 2 (NG2) cells are a glial cell type tiled throughout the gray and white matter of the central nervous system (CNS). NG2 cells are known for their ability to differentiate into oligodendroc...

    Authors: Laura A. Bell, Glenna J. Wallis and Karen S. Wilcox

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:369

    Content type: Research

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  30. The carotid bodies and baroreceptors are sensors capable of detecting various physiological parameters that signal to the brain via the afferent carotid sinus nerve for physiological adjustment by efferent pat...

    Authors: Aidan Falvey, Fabrice Duprat, Thomas Simon, Sandrine Hugues-Ascery, Silvia V. Conde, Nicolas Glaichenhaus and Philippe Blancou

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:368

    Content type: Research

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  31. Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion causes damage to the brain’s white matter underpinning vascular cognitive impairment. Inflammation and oxidative stress have been proposed as key pathophysiological mechanisms of...

    Authors: Emma Sigfridsson, Martina Marangoni, Giles E. Hardingham, Karen Horsburgh and Jill H. Fowler

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:367

    Content type: Research

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  32. The ability to distinguish resident microglia from infiltrating myeloid cells by flow cytometry-based surface phenotyping is an important technique for examining age-related neuroinflammation. The most commonl...

    Authors: Pedram Honarpisheh, Juneyoung Lee, Anik Banerjee, Maria P. Blasco-Conesa, Parisa Honarpisheh, John d’Aigle, Abdullah A. Mamun, Rodney M. Ritzel, Anjali Chauhan, Bhanu P. Ganesh and Louise D. McCullough

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:366

    Content type: Research

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  33. Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), a devastating brain injury affecting premature infants, is the most common cause of cerebral palsy. PVL is caused by hypoxia ischemia (HI) and is characterized by white matt...

    Authors: Nahla Zaghloul, Dalibor Kurepa, Mohammad Y. Bader, Nadia Nagy and Mohamed N. Ahmed

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:365

    Content type: Research

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  34. Secondary brain damage caused by the innate immune response and subsequent proinflammatory factor production is a major factor contributing to the high mortality of intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH). Nucleotide-...

    Authors: Miao Wang, Xinchun Ye, Jinxia Hu, Qiuchen Zhao, Bingchen Lv, Weijing Ma, Weiwei Wang, Hanhan Yin, Qi Hao, Chao Zhou, Tao Zhang, Weifeng Wu, Yan Wang, Mingyue Zhou, Cong-hui Zhang and Guiyun Cui

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:364

    Content type: Research

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  35. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating autoimmune disease affecting the CNS. Recent studies have indicated that intestinal alterations play key pathogenic roles in the development of autoimmune dis...

    Authors: Beatriz Gutierrez, Isabel Gallardo, Lorena Ruiz, Yolanda Alvarez, Victoria Cachofeiro, Abelardo Margolles, Marita Hernandez and Maria Luisa Nieto

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:363

    Content type: Research

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  36. Secondary damage after spinal cord injury (SCI) is characterized by a cascade of events including hemorrhage, apoptosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation which increase the lesion size which can influence th...

    Authors: Nicolas Pelisch, Jose Rosas Almanza, Kyle E. Stehlik, Brandy V. Aperi and Antje Kroner

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:362

    Content type: Research

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    The Correction to this article has been published in Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:87

  37. Activation of NF-kappaB RelA deacetylated at the lysine residues, except the lysine 310, drives pro-apoptotic transcription in noxious brain ischemia. We showed that the sinergistic combination of the histone ...

    Authors: Mariana Mota, Vanessa Porrini, Edoardo Parrella, Marina Benarese, Arianna Bellucci, Sina Rhein, Markus Schwaninger and Marina Pizzi

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:361

    Content type: Research

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  38. Inflammation and particularly interleukin-1β (IL-1β), a pro-inflammatory cytokine highly secreted by activated immune cells during early AMD pathological events, contribute significantly to retinal neurodegene...

    Authors: Rabah Dabouz, Colin W. H. Cheng, Pénélope Abram, Samy Omri, Gael Cagnone, Khushnouma Virah Sawmy, Jean-Sébastien Joyal, Michel Desjarlais, David Olson, Alexander G. Weil, William Lubell, José Carlos Rivera and Sylvain Chemtob

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:359

    Content type: Research

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  39. Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RD) involving the macula is a major cause of visual impairment despite high surgical success rate, mainly because of cone death. RD causes the infiltration of activated immun...

    Authors: Jean-Baptiste Conart, Guillaume Blot, Sébastien Augustin, Géraldine Millet-Puel, Christophe Roubeix, Fanny Beguier, Hugo Charles-Messance, Sara Touhami, José-Alain Sahel, Jean-Paul Berrod, Thierry Léveillard, Xavier Guillonneau, Cécile Delarasse and Florian Sennlaub

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:358

    Content type: Research

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  40. T helper (Th) 17 cells are a highly plastic subset of T cells, which in the context of neuroinflammation, are able to acquire pathogenic features originally attributed to Th1 cells (resulting in so called ex-T...

    Authors: Julia Loos, Samantha Schmaul, Theresa Marie Noll, Magdalena Paterka, Miriam Schillner, Julian T. Löffel, Frauke Zipp and Stefan Bittner

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:357

    Content type: Research

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  41. The existence of the neural control of mast cell functions has long been proposed. Mast cells (MCs) are localized in association with the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and the brain, where they are closely a...

    Authors: Huaping Xu, Xiaoyun Shi, Xin Li, Jiexin Zou, Chunyan Zhou, Wenfeng Liu, Huming Shao, Hongbing Chen and Linbo Shi

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:356

    Content type: Review

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  42. Macular fibrosis causes irreparable vision loss in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) even with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy. Inflammation is known to play an importa...

    Authors: Karis Little, Maria Llorián-Salvador, Miao Tang, Xuan Du, Stephen Marry, Mei Chen and Heping Xu

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:355

    Content type: Research

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  43. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Yi-wei Wang, Qin Zhou, Xiang Zhang, Qing-qing Qian, Jia-wen Xu, Peng-fei Ni and Yan-ning Qian

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:353

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Journal of Neuroinflammation 2017 14:233

  44. This article has been retracted. Please see the Retraction Notice for more detail: https://​doi.​org/​10.​1186/​s12974-020-02034-6

    Authors: Kun Hou, Guichen Li, Jinchuan Zhao, Baofeng Xu, Yang Zhang, Jinlu Yu and Kan Xu

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:352

    Content type: Retraction Note

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:46

  45. Air pollution has been linked to neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and the underlying neuroimmune mechanisms remain poorly understood. TREM2 is a myeloid cell membrane receptor th...

    Authors: Hendrik J. Greve, Christen L. Mumaw, Evan J. Messenger, Prasada R. S. Kodavanti, Joyce L. Royland, Urmila P. Kodavanti and Michelle L. Block

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:351

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  46. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is one of the most prevalent neurodegenerative disorders characterized by gradual memory loss and neuropsychiatric symptoms. We have previously demonstrated that the 2-({3-[2-(1-cycloh...

    Authors: Hyeon Joo Ham, Yong Sun Lee, Jaesuk Yun, Dong Ju Son, Hee Pom Lee, Sang-Bae Han and Jin Tae Hong

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:350

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  47. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated disease that damages myelin in the central nervous system (CNS). We investigated the profile of CCN3, a known regulator of immune function and a potential mediator...

    Authors: Michelle Naughton, Jill Moffat, George Eleftheriadis, Nira de la Vega Gallardo, Andrew Young, John Falconer, Kristen Hawkins, Ben Pearson, Bernard Perbal, Andrew Hogan, Paul Moynagh, Sam Loveless, Neil P. Robertson, Bruno Gran, Rachael Kee, Stella Hughes…

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:349

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  48. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Ferdinand Althammer, Hildebrando Candido Ferreira-Neto, Myurajan Rubaharan, Ranjan K. Roy, Atit A. Patel, Anne Murphy, Daniel N. Cox and Javier E. Stern

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:348

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:221

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